Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team
[ OSR's #8 - #195 ]
Operational Situation Report USSR No. 64
The Chief of the Security Police and the SD, Berlin,
Business and trade in Kodyma and Kotovsk are almost exclusively under Jewish management. All the stores and shops and storehouses have been destroyed as a result of the war; the rest was looted by the population.
B. Cultural Situation in Kodyma Region
1.) Nationalities situation:
2.) Education and Communist Influence:
There are three Soviet schools in the region of Kodyma, namely, one compromising ten classes, one eight, and one seven. The schools of ten and seven classes were used mainly by Jews. That school was transformed from a Jewish to a Russian school ten years ago. Soviet personnel policy concerning the school system provided for a staff of teachers who were in charge of the three schools. With one exception, directors, and managers of the schools were either Jews or Communist activists.
C. Jewish Matters
40% of the 5,000 inhabitants of Kodyma were Jews. In addition to the local Jews, there is a large number of refugees from Bessarbia. Most of the local Jews who were close to Bolshevism, that is members of the Communist part, have fled with the Soviet army.
Immediately after the Soviets arrived in Kodyma, the Jewish organizations were dissolved. Thus, their activities took place within the framework of the Communist party organizations. In 1935, the synagogues in Kodyma were transformed into schools. Prayer houses were not subsidized officially; therefore, the cult was practiced in private homes. These meetings were held secretly as the authorities collected bribes for this. Also, Jewish Soviet employees and workers would have endangered their position. Therefore they frequent the prayer meetings in secret.
The Jews in Kodyma did not lead a traditional Jewish way of life. They were active in all of the decision-making positions and had influence in Communist organizations, clubs, and economy. Of the six Jewish physicians, one dentist, two lawyers, one pharmacist, only one female physician has remained in Kodyma. The rest have fled.
Jewish intelligentsia in Kodyma took great interest in the activities of the Communist party and held, as already mentioned, leading party roles. The poorer part of the population were tradesmen. All of them were sympathetic to Bolshevism. Only a few Jewish families are members of the collectives.
Situation in the region of Khotin-Mogilev
1.) Jewish Question
At present there are about 4,000 Jews in the town of Mogilev who are part of the population. Approximately 7,000 Jews live in the immediate proximity of Mogilev. They were deported from Rumania into this area before its administration was taken over. One transport of Jews, consisting of about 6,000 persons, was escorted to the other side of the Dniester, in spite of considerable protest by the Rumanian officer in command of the brigade. The number of Jews increases daily on account of their return to the town.
It is intended to concentrate the Jewish population into one quarter of the town. The Jews who were deported in this area by the Rumanians are being confined in three camps. Jews fit for work were detailed to clear rubble in the town as well as bring in the harvest.
Relations with the Rumanian Army
Though the town was not damaged by the effects of the war, it was plundered almost entirely by the Rumanian troops as they passed through. Shootings and rapes are daily occurrences. All the complaints to the Rumanian commanders have not had any success worth mentioning. Therefore, together with the Ukrainian auxiliary police, a permanent street control has been introduced. In many cases, serious conflicts arose as looted goods were taken away again from the Rumanian troops.
Translation by Hermann Feuer
Copyright: H.E.A.R.T 2007