Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team
[ OSR's #8 - #195 ]
Operational Situation Report USSR No. 94
The Chief of the Security Police and the SD, Berlin,
September 27, 1941
Within the area of the civil administration, Einsatzkommandos 2 and 3 found at various localities an intensified propaganda activity of the Jewish population for the Bolshevik cause. Wherever such propaganda activity appears, the severest measures are taken and as far as possible the localities are entirely purged of Jews.
As this Jewish propaganda activity has been particularly intensive in Lithuania, the number of persons liquidated within the area of Einsatzkommando 3 has increased to approximately 75,000. For specific tasks, special Kommandos had to be sent repeatedly into the rural districts and were assigned to certain localities for several days. Thus, for example, one Kommando had to be sent to Plyusa as reports about large-scale looting were received from there. 47 per- sons were arrested and questioned. Seven persons were shot for looting, two more were publicly escorted through the streets of the locality, while the inhabitants were told that these persons had been looting food to the detriment of the population.
Another Sonderkommando had to be sent to Mugotovo where 87 insane per- sons armed themselves and roamed the countryside looting. It was ascertained that these inmates were incited by eleven Communists, part of whom presumably belonged to a partisan group. The eleven agitators, among them six Jews, and the insane were liquidated In the vicinity of the headquarters of Group Staff Posye, Kikerino and Meshno, the whole male population was regularly screened immediately on arrival of the units.
This repeatedly resulted in the arrest of partisans, Jewish and Communist agitators, looters, etc. Since the locations of the Einsatzgruppe are always near the headquarters of Armored Group IV, appreciation for this systematic and successful screening of the neighboring area was repeatedly voiced by Armored Group IV.
2.) The Jewish problem in Ostland
The first actions against the Jews in the Reichskommissariat Ostland (besides in the capacity of the administrative police) were undertaken by the Security Police. After the civil administration had taken over, the Einsatzkommandos transferred all anti-Jewish actions in the administrative police field, whether completed or only initiated, to the civil administration agencies. The establishment of ghettos has already begun everywhere and is being continued by the civil administration.
Only in Vilnius, which was taken over by Einsatzgruppe A at a later date, preparations were not as yet made for the confinement in a ghetto of the 60,000 Jews living there Emsatzkommando 3 now has suggested the establishment of a ghetto and will at the same time initiate the necessary pacification actions against the political activity of the Jews. In Riga, the so-called Moscow quarter of the town was designated as a ghetto even before the civil administration took over and a council of Jewish elders had been appointed.
The removal of the Jews into the ghetto is being continued. The Jews in the cities are being employed by all German agencies as unpaid manpower. Difficulties with employing agencies are every- day occurrences. If and when they occur the Security Police must take steps against Jewish workers. Economic agencies have repeated- y filed applications for exempting Jews from the obligation to wear the Star of David and to authorize them to patronize public inns.
concerns mostly Jews who are designated as key personnel for certain
economic enterprises. Such efforts are, of course, suppressed by the
agencies of the Security Police. In the old Soviet-Russian
territory, Jews were found only sporadically, even in the cities.
Most of the Jews who had been living there had fled.
1.) Measures taken and observations made by the Security Police
During the preparation period for the military offensive now underway, the operations of the Einsatzkommandos were continued intensively and on a broad basis. In the southern region of the operational area, because of the sparseness of the Jewish population, the main effort had to be directed toward individual investigations and search actions.
However, particularly in the region of Zhitomir and Berdichev, there was an opportunity for actions on a larger scale. This also explains the difference in the number of executions re- ported by the individual Kommandos. Sonderkommando 4a has now surpassed the number of 15,000 executions. Einsatzkommando 5, for the period August 31-September 6, 1941, reports the liquidation of 90 political officials, 72 saboteurs and looters, and 161 Jews. Sonderkommando 4b, in the period September 6-12, 1941, shot 13 political officials and 290 Jews, primarily of the intelligentsia, whereas Einsatzkommando 6, in the period September 1-13, 1941, executed 60 persons.
Group Staff was able to liquidate during the last days four political officials and informers of the NKVD, six asocial elements (Gypsies), and 55 Jews. The units of the Higher SS 'and Police Chiefs, during the month of August, shot a total of 44,125 persons, mostly Jews. 1 As already mentioned, the procedure against the Jews is necessarily different in the individual sectors, according to the density of their settlement.
Especially in the northern sector of Einsatzgruppe C, a great many Jewish refugees have returned to the villages, and now present a heavy burden with respect to the food situation. The population neither houses nor feeds them. They live partly in caves, partly in overcrowded old huts. The danger of epidemics has thus in- creased considerably. For that reason alone, a thorough clean-up of the respective places became necessary.
The insolence of the Jews has not diminished. Apart from the fact that on the occasion of raids they like to pass themselves off as Rus- sians, Ukrainians, and even ethnic Germans, they are often in the possession of passports which, though showing their names correctly, give a false nationality. Concealment of their Jewish descent has been made easier for them by the russification of their names which took place to an ever-accelerating pace during the past years. At Kirovograd, it became known that Jews tried to obtain all of the registry office s identity papers with a false nationality.
Several Jews, on the basis of forged papers, even succeeded in obtaining various posts with the administration. They also performed such acts of "re- baptism" through a system of patronage as had been the old custom.
The Ukrainian population, for fear of revenge by the Jews, often does not dare to report this situation to the authorities. The most severe measures are taken here in dealing with such cases. Difficulties have arisen because Jews are often the only skilled workers in certain trades. Thus the only harness-makers and the only good tailors in Novo-Ukrainka are Jews.
At other places also, only Jews can be employed for carpentry and locksmith work. The cause of this shortage of skilled workers is to a large extent to be found in the unlimited compulsory evacuation of skilled Ukrainians by the Soviets. In order not to endanger reconstruction as well as repair work for the benefit of passing military units, it has become necessary to exclude, provisionally, from execution, especially the older Jewish skilled workers.
Translation by Hermann Feuer
Copyright: H.E.A.R.T 2007